Strengthening the maintenance of the equipment is very important to ensure the normal operation of the equipment. At present, there are four problems in hydraulic equipment
1. The hydraulic system works well and sometimes fails, and the actuator sometimes does not work;
2. Serious system leakage;
3. The actuator has jumping, vibration or crawling when it moves;
4. The temperature rise of working oil in hydraulic system is too high.
If the above four problems are analyzed and diagnosed to find out the causes of the problems, at the same time, the hydraulic equipment is scientifically managed and preventive measures are proposed for common faults, the faults of the hydraulic system can be reduced or avoided. The following points should be paid attention to in the maintenance of hydraulic equipment.
Hydraulic transmission is a kind of transmission which uses liquid as working medium and uses the pressure of liquid to transfer and control energy. Usually, the energy transfer is completed by volume change in a closed system. A complete hydraulic system is composed of five parts, namely, power components, executive components, control components, auxiliary components and hydraulic oil.
① To control the oil pollution and keep the oil clean is an important measure to ensure the normal operation of the hydraulic system. At present, due to the serious oil pollution, hydraulic faults occur frequently. According to the statistics of a large factory, 80% of the failures of the hydraulic system are caused by oil pollution. Oil contamination also accelerates wear of hydraulic components.
② Controlling the temperature rise of working oil in hydraulic system is an important link to reduce energy consumption and improve system efficiency. In the hydraulic system of a machine tool, if the oil temperature changes in a large range, the consequences are as follows:
a. The oil absorption capacity and volumetric efficiency of the hydraulic pump are affected;
b. The system works abnormally, the pressure and speed are unstable, and the action is not reliable;
c. The internal and external leakage of hydraulic components increases;
d. Accelerate the oxidation and metamorphism of oil.
③ It is very important to control the leakage of hydraulic system, because leakage and suction are common faults of hydraulic system. To control the leakage, the first is to improve the machining accuracy of hydraulic components and components, the assembly quality of components and the installation quality of piping system; the second is to improve the quality of seals, pay attention to the installation, use and regular replacement of seals; the last is to strengthen daily maintenance.
④ Prevent vibration and noise of hydraulic system. Vibration affects the performance of hydraulic components, it makes the screw loose, pipe joint loose, thus causing oil leakage, and even oil pipe rupture. Once the screw fracture and other faults occur, it will cause personal and equipment accidents. Therefore, vibration should be prevented and eliminated.
⑤ Strictly implement the system of routine point inspection and regular inspection. Spot inspection and regular inspection is one of the foundations of equipment maintenance. There are three difficulties of concealment, variability and difficult to judge in hydraulic system fault. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out spot inspection and regular inspection on the working state of the hydraulic system, record the possible fault phenomena on the daily inspection and maintenance card, and eliminate the faults in the bud, so as to reduce the occurrence of major accidents, and also provide the first-hand information for equipment maintenance.
⑥ Strictly implement the regular fastening, cleaning, filtering and replacement system. In the working process of hydraulic equipment, due to the impact, vibration, wear, pollution and other factors, the pipe fittings are loose, and the metal parts and seals are worn. Therefore, the hydraulic parts and oil tank must be cleaned and maintained regularly, and the oil and seal parts shall be replaced in a delayed manner.
⑦ Strictly implement the process discipline. In the modern mechanical processing factory with high degree of automation and mass production, the specialized production level of mechanical equipment is high, and the rhythm of production is very strong. It is necessary to adjust the pressure and flow rate of hydraulic system according to the processing requirements and production rhythm, so as to prevent the operator from increasing the working pressure of the hydraulic system and speeding up the movement speed in order to speed up the shooting. Unreasonable adjustment not only increases power consumption and oil temperature, but also leads to hydraulic system failure.
⑧ Establish technical files of hydraulic equipment. Equipment technical archives are the technical basis of "managing, using and repairing" equipment, and the original basis for spare parts management, equipment maintenance and technical transformation. Therefore, the establishment of technical files of hydraulic equipment will help to analyze and judge the causes of hydraulic faults, and provide basis for taking decisive measures to eliminate faults.
⑨ It is necessary to establish a test site for repairing hydraulic components. In order to ensure that the repaired hydraulic components meet the original technical performance requirements, or carry out quality inspection on the inventory hydraulic components, or conduct performance test for imported hydraulic components before mapping and trial production, a repair test site is required.